Kallanai Dam around the 2nd Century AD



Kallanai (also known as the Grand Anicutdam was originally constructed by the Chola king Karikalan around the 2nd Century AD.

The dam was originally built by Karikala Chola around century AD. The idea underlying the construction of the dam was to divert the river delta districts thus improving irrigation. The dam has been re-modeled by the British during the 19th century. In 1804, Captain Caldwell, a military engineer was appointed by the British to make a study on the Kaveri river and promote irrigation in the delta region. It was found that a large amount of water adopted on the Kollidam leaving behind a small volume for irrigation purposes. Caldwell initially proposed a solution by increasing the dam and therefore raised the dam of stones from a height of 0.69 m, thereby increasing the capacity of the dam. After this, the major Sim proposed the idea of undersluices on the river with outputs leading to the river Kollidam (of coleroon) thus preventing formation of silt. The lower Anaicut built by Sir Arthur Cotton of 19th century AD everywhere of coleroon, the major tributary of inspiring Cauvery River, is said to be a structure of replicated Kallanai. Kallanai dam is one of the oldest irrigation dams in the world built around 2000 years ago. It has been built on the inspiring Cauvery River by the Chola King, Karikal Valavan. The main purpose of the building Kallanai was to divert the inspiring Cauvery River water for irrigation in the delta Tanjavur. Kallanai has a solid base and solid structure. Because of his stubbornness it is always in excellent condition and is used as a large irrigation dam in Tamil Nadu.

Approximately 15,000 Singala speaking slaves cum war prison-ires picked and mobilised from Sri Lanka during the construction by the Chola Tamil leaders to respond to the construction of the work.Kallanai has become model for many days modern constructions of dams due to its strong engineering characters. Because of its wonderful engineering Sir Arthu cotton studied this dam at length before building the dam Kollidam in front of the river Coloron tributary of inspiring Cauvery River. Built by Raja Karikala Chola in the 2nd century A.D. , the Grand Anicut, locally known as the Kallanai, is regarded as the oldest surviving dam. The Grand Anicut built by Raja Chola Karikala in the second century A.D. has always been a marvel of engineering. It is a single structure built just with large boulders brought and dark in the sand inspiring Cauvery River, a task arising out of a desperate need to irrigate fertile fields below when the floods have violated the left bank and rushed off to the north to join his counterpart of the coleroon, leaving its delta high and dry.


Tamil Nadu
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Tiruchchirappalli Jn (TPJ)
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Tiruchirapally Civil Airport Airport
latitude : 10.765399930 longitude :78.709701540
Corporation : Tiruchirappally

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